SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination – influence on reproductive health and male genital tract

Over three years of the COVID-19 pandemic have brought a large number of clinical studies confirming the possible involvement of SARS-CoV-2 infection in fertility disorders. Although research data indicated relatively high tropism of the SARS-CoV-2 virus to male reproductive system (especially to the male gonad), there is still no clear whether the observed semen quality deterioration in men, especially in the first three months after COVID-19 infection, is a direct consequence of active infection in the male reproductive tract by the SARS-CoV-2 virus or rather an indirect effect of systemic and local inflammatory reactions, which are a natural response to an infectious agent. This article is the first comprehensive cross-sectional description in the Polish literature that summarizes the current knowledge, supported by clinical experience, on the potential pathogenetic mechanisms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on male reproductive potential. The authors are aware that further in-depth scientific research and long-term clinical observations are needed for final summary and/or conclusions concerning COVID-19 impact on reproductive health.